Maharishi was author of the holy epic ‘Ramayana’, consisting of 24,000 verses. He is also was author of Yoga Vasistha, a text that explains on philosophical issues. Valmiki is also said to be the contemporary of Lord Rama. Sita took refuge in his Ashram where Lava and Kusa were born.
Maharishi Valmiki First name was Ratnakara . At a very young age, Ratnakara went into the forest and got lost. A hunter, who was passing by, saw Ratnakara and took him under his own care. Under the love and care of his foster parents, Ratnakara forgot his original parents. Under his father’s guidance, Ratnakara became an excellent hunter. As he approached marriageable age, Ratnakara was married to a beautiful girl from hunter’s family.
As his family grew day by day, Ratnakara found it next to impossible to feed them. As a result, he took to robbery and began looting people passing from one village to another.
Finaly the day come while, the great sage Narada, passing through the jungle, was attacked by Ratnakara. As Narada played his Veena and sang praises of the Lord, he saw a transformation coming over Ratnakara. Then, he asked Ratnakara whether the family, for whom he was robbing others, will partake in his sins also. Ratnakara went to ask the same question to his family and on being refused by all his family members, he went back to sage Narada. Narada taught him the sacred name of ‘Rama’ and asked him to sit in meditation, chanting the name of Rama, till the time Narada came back.
Ratnakara followed the instructions and kept sitting in a meditative posture for years, during which his body got completely covered by an anthill. At last, Narada came to see him and removed all the anthills from his body. Then, he told Ratnakara that his tapasya (meditation) paid off and the God was pleased with him. Ratnakara was bestowed with the honor of a Brahmarshi and given the name of Valmiki, since he was reborn from the Valmika (the ant-hill). Sage Valmiki founded his ashram at the banks of River Ganga.
One day, Valmiki had the fortuity of receiving Lord Rama, His wife Sita and brother Lakshman at his ashram. On Valmiki’s suggestion, Lord Rama built his hut on Chitrakuta hill, near the ashram.
Narada visited Maharishi Valmiki in his ashram once and there, he narrated the story of Lord Rama. Thereafter he received a vision from Brahma in which the Lord instructed him to write Ramayana in slokas, which the sage readily followed.
One day In forest B. Kannappa saw eyes of shivalingm were bleeding. He plucked his one eye out with one of his arrows and placed it in the spot of the bleeding eye of the Shiva linga. This stopped the bleeding in that eye of the linga and B. Kannappa was very happy.
His joy was short-lived as, soon after, the second eye too began to bleed! This suddenly complicated matters for B. Kannappa. No! It was not because he was hesitant to give up his other eye. It was because he thought that if he were to pluck his other eye too, he would become blind to exactly know the spot where he has to place his own second eye over the bleeding second eye of thelingam! And so, he placed his big toe on the bleeding eye as a marker and was about to plunge the arrow to gouge his second eye too. At this point, Lord Shiva appears and stops him from blinding himself.
The fall of Vijayanagara empire caused the emergence of splinter states in South India and Deccan. These states collectively known as Poligars (Palegars). They dominated the political scenario of the South India from These Poligar states founded by the warrior tribes of South India; they eventually came to the mainstream of the south Indian polity.The present Book deals one such Poligar state known as Surapura Samsthana founded by the Bedars and ruled between 1650 and 1858 AD
Nayakas of Chitradurga
Obanna Nayaka I (1588–1602) is also known as Madakari Nayaka I.
Kasturi Rangappa Nayaka I (1602–1652) In 1602, Obanna Nayaka was succeeded by his son Kasturi Rangappa Nayaka. He was a brave soldier who defied the Sultan of Bijapur. His reign was full of conflicts with neighbouring chiefs. Several battles were fought with the Paleyagar (chief) of Basavapattana over territories such as Mayakonda, Santebennur, Holalkere, Anaji, and Jagalur, all of which ultimately became part of the Chitradurga territory. At the time of his death in 1652, the kingdoms possessions yielded a revenue of 65,000 Durgi Pagodas.
Madakari Nayaka II (1652–1674) Rangappa Nayaka was succeeded by his son Madakari Nayaka II in 1652 who is credited with a number of military successes, particularly in the regions east of Chitradurga. He killed Shah Adib Allah in 1671 in a battle at Chitradurga.
Obanna Nayaka II (1674–1675) His rule saw civil unrest. He was killed by his own men.
Shoora Kantha Nayaka (1675–1676) His rule saw civil unrest. He was killed by his own men.
Chikkanna Nayaka (1676–1686)
Madakari Nayaka III (1686–1688)
Donne Rangappa Nayaka (1688–1689)
Bharamappa Nayaka of Bilichodu (1689–1721) known as the last of the great Nayakas of Chitradurga, he became a Maratha ally and fought in the battle of Dodderi in 1695 but had to pay tribute later to the Mughals for supporting the Marathas. He fought many pitched battles against the Mughals, and is credited for building many temples including theRanganatha Swamy at Niratadi, and irrigation tanks.
Madakari Nayaka IV (1721–1748) was a Maratha feudatory. He was killed during continued hostilities against the Nayakas of Davangere.
Kasturi Rangappa Nayaka II (1748–1758), son of Kasturi Rangappa Nayaka II, retook Mayakonda territory. He achieved this with the help of the Maratha Sardar Murari Rao and the Subedar of Advani. Kasturi Rangappa Nayaka is said to have made various expeditions to the north and south, and in the latter direction gained some possessions in the Budihal region. He is also said to have maintained close ties with the Subedar of Sira. He died in 1754 without an heir. Madakeri Nayaka the last, son of one Bharamappa Nayaka of Janakal-Durga, became his successor.
Madakari Nayaka (1758–1779) was a brave soldier and a shrewd administrator as well (also called as Madakari Nayaka V). He allied himself with Haider Ali of the Mysore Kingdom at times and at other times with the Marathas. It was during his time that Haider Ali attacked the Chitradurga Fort leading to the heroics of “Onake Obavva”. Later having been betrayed by the Marathas and some local officers, Madakari Nayaka was defeated by Hyder Ali, taken prisoner and killed. The Chitradurga Nayakas form an integral part of Kannada folklore.
Madakari Nayaka V (1758 – 1779) was a brave soldier and a shrewd administrator. He allied himself with Haider Ali of Mysore Kingdom at times and at other times with the Marathas. It was during his time that Haider Ali attacked the Chitradurga Fort which lead to the heroics of Onake Obavva. Later having been betrayed by the Marathas and some local officers, Madakari Nayaka was defeated by Hyder Ali, taken prisoner and killed.The Chitradurga Nayakas form an integral part of Kannada folklore.
The great personalities from this caste are MADAKARI NAYAKA of Chitradurga Samsthana. He won the war against Hyderali father of Tippu Sultan. Majority people are Telugu speaking in Bellary,Raichur and Parts of Chitradurga region. By thier culture and worshipping looks like all are migrated from ANDRA region. Still many families had roots in ANDRA region. In fact, this region was part greater Andhra country of ancient times. Even the vanaras, who were the ancestors of these bedar valmiki nayakas were Telugu speaking people.
The history of Karnataka dates back to the period of epics. The capital of Vali and Sugriva, ‘Vanara Sena’ of the Ramayana, is said to have been Hampi in the present day Bellary district. Hidimbasura of Mahabharatha, a cruel and fierce demon, is said to have lived in present day Chitradurga district of Karnataka, who was then exterminated by Bhima who came there along with the other Pandavas and their mother Kunti during the Vanavaasa. Stone transcriptions from the period of Ashoka are the oldest available archaelogical evidence.
Keladi Nayaka Kingdom
During the decline of Vijayanagar empire in the 14th century, the administration of Kasaragod area was vested with the Ikkery Naikans. They continued to be the rulers till the fall of the Vijayanagar empire in 16th century. Then Vengappa Naik declared independence to Ikkery. In 1645 Sivappa Naik took the reigns and transferred the capital to Bednoor. Thus they came to be known as Bednoor Naik. Chandragiri and Bekal forts are considered to be parts of a chain of Forts constructed by Sivappa Naik. KOTTAPPURAM Mud fort build by the Nileshwar Rajas and later annexed by Bednore Nayaks in the 18th century.
Chaudappa (1499 – 1530) from Keladi was the earliest chieftain to rule the area surrounding Shivamogga.
Sadashiva Nayaka (1530 – 1566) was an important chieftain in the Vijayanagar Empire and earned the title Kotekolahala from emperor Aliya Rama Raya for his heroics in the battle of Kalyani. The coastal provinces of Karnataka came under his direct rule. He moved the capital to Ikkeri some 20 km. from Keladi.
Sankanna Nayaka (1566 – 1570)
Chikkasankanna (1570 – 1580) was an opportunistic ruler who took advantage of the confusion in the Vijayanagar Empire following its defeat at Tallikota and grabbed a few provinces in Uttara Kannada district.
Ramaraja Nayaka (1580 – 1586)
Hiriya Venkatappa Nayaka (1586 – 1629) is considered by scholars as ablest monarch of the clan. He completely freed himself from the overlordship of the relocated Vijayanagar rulers of Penugonda. Italian traveller Pietro Della Valle, who visited his kingdom in 1623, called him an able soldier and administrator. In his reign the kingdom expanded so that it covered coastal regions, malnad regions, and some regions to the east of the western Ghats of present day Karnataka. He is also known to have defeated the Adilshahis of Bijapur in Hanagal. Though a Virashaiva by faith,a valmiki nayaka king converted to veerashaivism , he built many temples for Vaishnavas and Jains and a mosque for Muslims.
Virabhadra Nayaka (1629 – 1645) faced many troubles from the start, including competition from rival chieftains for the throne of Ikkeri and invasion by the Sultanate armies of Bijapur. Ikkeri was plundered by the Bijapur army during his time.
Shivappa Nayaka (1645 – 1660) is widely considered as the ablest and greatest of the Keladi rulers. He was not only an able administrator; he also patronised literature and fine arts. His successful campaigns against the Bijapur sultans, the Mysore kings, the Portuguese, and other Nayakas of the neighbouring territories east of the western ghats helped expand the kingdom to its greatest extent, covering large areas of present day Karnataka. He gave importance to agriculture and developed new schemes for collection of taxes and revenues which earned him much praise from later British officials. A statue of him and the palace built by him containing many artifacts of his times are reminders of the respect he has earned even from the present generation of people of the region.
Chikkavenkatappa Nayaka (1660 – 1662)
Bhadrappa Nayaka (1662 – 1664)
Somashekara (1664 – 1672) The King who was once a good administrator, gave up his interest in administration after his associastion with a dancer named Kalavati. Bharame Mavuta, a relative of Kalavati slow poisoned the king which eventually led to his death.
Keladi Chennamma (1672 – 1697) was an able ruler who some scholars say allied with the Maratha Shivaji and later his son Sambhaji to defeat all rival claimants to the throne. She gave shelter to Chhatrapathi Rajaram when he fled from the Mughal army. Chennamma of Keladi is well remembered by local people through tales of her bravery.
Basavappa (1697 – 1714)
Somashekara (1714 – 1739)
Kiriya Basavappa (1739 – 1754)
Chennabasappa (1754 – 1757)
Queen Virammaji (1757 – 1763) was defeated by Hyder Ali and the Keladi kingdom merged with the Kingdom of Mysore.
Nayaka Dynasty of Ikkeri
The Nayaka Dynasty of Ikkeri, a feudatory family rose to power due to the feudalistic decentralization in the Vijayanagara Empire was a very important empire. Later on the Nayakas became independent and came to be called the rulers of Ikkeri. They ruled from 1500 to 1763, under uncertain conditions in the south.
The Nayaka dynasty was matchless in framing the political and cultural history of Karnataka because they continued the policy of the Vijayanagara emperors in acting as a barricade against expansion of Islam. Besides this, the Keladi rulers successfully curbed the expansionist tendencies of the Portuguese power on the western coast. The kings also offered resistance to the absorption of their territory by the Sultan of Bijapur. At its zenith, the Keladi kingdom extended from Goa in the north and Cannannore in the south and included the present Shimoga, Uttara Kannada, Dakshina Kannada and part of Hassan districts.
Two semi-historical literary works Keladinripavijaya and the Sivcttattva Ratnakara speak about the history of Keladi. The founders of the kingdom were Chauda and Bhadra, the sons of a Veera Saiva agriculturalist. Having discovered a buried treasure in their field at Keladi, Chauda managed to become the chieftain of that village. He ruled for thirteen years having been crowned in 1500. The two brothers were employed by Krishnadeva Raya against rebel elements in his empire. In recognition of the heroism and loyalty of: Chauda the Vijayanagara emperor made him the governor of Pulladesa and gave him the title Keladi Mulasam Sthanada Chaudappa nayaka. He had two sons Sadasiva and Bhadrappa. Chaudappa Nayaka was succeeded by his son Sadasiva Nayaka.
Sadasiva Nayaka (1513-1536) or (1530-1567)
The Keladi Nayakas emerge into the limelight with the accession of Sadasiva. He is known to have routed the rulers of Kalyana, Kalburgi, Bidar, Bankapur, and the Tulu and Kerala countries and gained the title of `Satrusaptangaharana.` According to one of his inscriptions, Sadasiva ruled over 56 garudas comprising Araga, Gutti, thirty-six Kampanas, Tulu rajya, Barakura and Manguluru. Besides military exploits, Sadasiva is credited for having made grants to Brahmin and Virasaiva mathas, and constructing forts at Chandragiri, Keladi and Kasargod. He appears to have taken to a retired life towards the end of his life and left the responsibility of administration to Bhadrappa Nayaka. Later the successors of Sadasiva continued as feudatories of the Vijayanagar Empire till Venkatappa Nayaka I became independent some time in 1613. It is believed that the capital of this kingdom was shifted from Keladi to Ikkeri during Sadasiva Nayaka`s time. But according to some scholars this happened during Venkatappa Nayaka.
Venkatappa Nayaka (1582-1629)
Venkatappa was the most successful Nayaka who extended his kingdom on all sides and drove back the Bijapur forces. He defeated Bhairadevi of Gerusoppa and restricted the Portuguese expansion. To mark the victory against Bhairadevi, he erected a pillar at Hangal. The Keladi state became a power to be reckoned with and the rice and pepper trade of the west passed into the hands of the Nayaks from the Portuguese. Venkatappa is credited with the construction of a number of forts, temples and the founding of many agraharas (villages granted to learned Brahmanas). Venkatappa was succeeded by his grandson Virabhadra Nayaka (1629-45). Virabhadra`s reign was one of political troubles. As Virabhadra died without a male heir, the throne passed on to his uncle`s sons – Sivappa and Venkatappa. Sivappa murdered Venkatappa, who had been crowned because of his age, and ascended the throne in 1645.
Shivappa Nayaka (reigned 1645 – 1660) also known as Keladi Shivappa Nayaka, was a notable ruler of the Keladi Nayaka Kingdom. The Keladi Nayakas were successors of the Vijayanagara Empire in the coastal and Malnad (hill) districts of Karnataka, India, in the late 16th century. At their peak, the Nayakas built a niche kingdom comprising the coastal, hill and some interior districts (Bayaluseeme) of modern Karnataka, before succumbing to the Kingdom of Mysore ruled by Hyder Ali in 1763.He was known as Sistina Shivappa Nayaka because he introduced a tax system called Sist.
Shivappa Nayaka is remembered as an able administrator and soldier. He ascended the throne in 1645. During this time, the last ruler of the diminished Vijayanagara Empire ruling from Vellore, Shriranga Raya III was defeated by the Bijapur Sultanate and sought refuge with Shivappa. The growing threat of the Portuguese was eliminated by 1653 and the ports of Mangalore, Kundapura and Honnavar were brought under Keladi control. Having conquered the Kannada coast, he marched down to Kasargod region of modern Kerala and installed a pillar of victory at Nileshvara. The forts of Chandragiri, Bekal and Mangalore were built by Shivappa Nayaka.
Later he invaded north of the Tungabhadra river and captured territory in the modern Dharwad district from the Bijapur Sultanate. In the south, when he invaded and laid siege to Srirangapatna in modern Mysore district, an epidemic broke out in his army forcing him the withdraw.
Shivappa Nayaka introduced a revenue settlement scheme called Sist, a policy that has found favourable comparison to revenue schemes formulated by the Mogul emperor Akbar. According to this scheme, agricultural lands were divided into five types depending on the type of soil and available irrigational facilities. A unit of sowing capacity called Khanduga was developed and every irrigable land was taxed in varying amounts based on this unit. The rate of taxation depended on the yield in each one of these five types of land, the rate varying from village to village and amounting to a third of the total yield. Shivappa Nayaka gave importance to agriculture which resulted in an expanding agrarian economy.A religious and tolerant man, Shivappa Nayaka performed Vedic sacrifices and rituals and patronised the Hindu Advaita order of Sringeri. He was tolerant towards Christians and gave them land to cultivate. He encouraged the mercantile communities of South India such as the Komatis and Konkanis to settle down and establish businesses in his kingdom.
An interesting episode from the time of Shivappa Nayaka’s rule goes as follows. A poor man called Ganesh Mallya came to Keladi, the capital city, with the intention of finding a job. Having no money, he carried a bag full of home-grown coconuts. Before entering the city, every traveller had to pass through eight toll gates, each of which collected a tax. Because he carried no cash, Ganesh Mallya had to part with two coconuts at each toll gate, one as tax and the other as a gift to the official. He also paid with two coconuts at the city entrance. Frustrated with all the tolls, Mallya boldly set up his own toll gate (the ninth toll gate) and collected a toll after registering full details of travellers into the city in his own register. In return for the toll, Ganesh Mallya handed out a receipt with a note new custom station for eighteen coconuts, signature of Ganeshayya Raja of Kumta. This went on unnoticed for eighteen months before King Shivappa Nayaka heard of it. When summoned by the king, Ganesh Mallya admitted he had collected an illegal toll to make a livelihood. Impressed by his honesty and business acumen, Shivappa Nayaka took Ganesh Mallya into his service. Shivappa Nayaka was succeeded on the throne by his younger brother Chikkavenkatappa Nayaka in 1660.
Shivamogga District is a district in the Karnataka state of India.Shivamogga is alternatively spelt asShimoga. A major part of this district lies in the Malnad region of the Western Ghats; a region known for its green forests, plentiful rainfall, beautiful waterfalls and also of being the source of many rivers that flow in Karnataka. Shivamogga City is the headquarters of this district. The most popular attraction of this district is the Jog Falls. It is also the district that is the native of most number of Chief Ministers of the state of Karnataka.
The history of the Shivamogga region is very much the history of Karnataka itself, considering that all the great kingdoms that came to power here have vied for control of and ruled this land of rich resources. Prior to the beginning of the first millennium, the Shivamogga region formed a part of the Maurya empire. The Satavahana then came to control in central India and Shivamogga must have formed one of the southern most provinces of the kingdom.After the fall of the Shatavahana empire around 200 C.E., after a brief interlude of confusion that existed, the area came under the control of the Kadambas of Banavasi around 345 C.E. The Kadambas were the earliest kingdom to give administrative status to Kannada language. Banavasi is just across the border from Shivamogga inside Uttara Kannada district. Later the Kadambas became feudatories of the Badami Chalukyas around 540 C.E..Shivamogga passed into the hands of the Rashtrakutas in the 8th century. It was only under the Kalyani Chalukyas who overthrew the Rashtrakutas did Shivamogga come into prominence in Southern India. Balligavi in Shivamogga district had its greatest and grandest time during there rule. Later in the 12th. century with the weakening of the Kalyani Chalukyas the Hoysalas annexed this area. Shivamogga continued to play an important role in the development of Kannada culture and arts during this time. After the fall of the Hoysalas to the invasion of the Khilji dynasty around 1343 C.E. the entire region came under the Vijayanagar Empire without any bloodshed. The Saluva kings of the Vijayanagar empire find their roots in this region. After the defeat of Vijayanagar empire in 1565 C.E. in the battle of Tallikota, Shivamogga had one more last surprise in that the local Keladi Nayakas who were originally feudatory of the Vijayanagar empire took control, declared sovereignty and ruled mostly as an independent kingdom for about two centuries, often waging wars with the Mysore Kingdom, the Sultans of Bijapur and finally the Maratha. In 1763 they were finally absorbed into the Kingdom of Mysore and remained a part of it till independence from the British .
Tirumalai Nayaka of Madurai
Nayaka dynasty of Madurai
One of the well-known rulers of the Nayaka dynasty of Madurai, Tirumalai Nayak was very apt in administration activities. Son of Muttu Krishnappa, Tirumalai Nayaka succeeded his brother Muttu Virappa Nayaka on the throne. Muttu Virappa had changed his capital from Madurai to Tiruchirapalli. But, Tirumalai Nayak shifted his capital from Tiruchirapalli back to Madurai, and carefully organised the defenses of the kingdom.
Tirumalai`s reign was marked by a large number of military campaigns. He was successful in his wars with Mysore. He undertook a successful expedition against Travancore in about 1634-35 A.D. He settled the dispute for throne between Sadaika Deva and Tambi in the Ramanth region. Finally, Raghunatha Deva became the ruler and he remained loyal to Tirumala who rewarded him liberally when he crushed the poligar rising at Ettaiyapuram. Till about 1634 Tirumala was loyal to Vijayanagar, though it was only a normal subordination. Then he planned an alliance with the Nayaks of Gingee and Tanjavur, to oppose Sriranga III, the Vijayanagar emperor. His plans were betrayed by the Nayak of Tanjavur. Then Tirumala requested the Golconda Sultan to help him against the emperor.
After defeating Sriranga, the Sultan turned against the other South Indian kingdoms. So Tirumala was forced to ask the Sultan of Bijapur for help. But all this led to expansion of Muslim rule in the south. He remained neutral in the contests between the Dutch and the Portuguese in the south. Tirumala made significant contributions in the realms of art and architecture. He built the Pudu mandapa, dug the Uppakula (tank), carried out many repairs and renovations to the Madurai temple and began the unfinished Raya gopura in Madurai. He also built an extensive palace to the south-east of the temple. Tirumala is credited with the building of many structures – both religious and civilians in his realm- at Madurai, Tirupparan-kunram, Alagarkoyil, Srivilliputtur, etc.
Rani Mangamma of Madurai
Famous for developing infrastructure, Rani Mangamma was the queen of Chokkanatha Nayaka (1659-82) of Madurai. She ruled as the regent when her grandson Vijayaranga Chokkanatha was crowned when he was barely three months old. Her son Ranga Krishna Virappa Nayaka died in 1689 after a short rule. His wife Muttamma committed suicide after the birth of her son Vijayaranga Chokkanatha.
The tact and diplomacy of Mangammal helped in maintaining amicable relations with the neighbouring powers. She bought off the Muslims and was subordinate and loyal to them. She also bribed the Marathas. Mangamma successfully resisted the aggressive policy of Chikkadevaraya of Mysore. She undertook an expedition to Travancore to collect arrears of tribute. Her war with Tanjavur ended in peace and an alliance. In Ramnad, Kilavan Setupati was becoming more and more independent. In about 1698 A.D. he besieged Madurai city and took it but was soon driven out. In 1702 A.D. he became completely independent.
Mangamma showed great lenience towards Christian preachers and her Christian subjects. She was equally considerate towards other religions. A copper plate inscription of 1692 records a grant for the maintenance of a mosque in the name of her grandson. In 1701 she financed for the construction of a Muhammadan dargah as a gift to some villages near Tiru-chirapalli.
Mangamma has favoured many Hindus. Her liberality regarding charities and public works is proverbial. She is famous as a road maker. She built some artistic public edifices like summer house and the choultry, which is named after her prestigious name. She provided for the comfort of pedestrians by planting trees on the roads she constructed and repaired, and placing inns and supplies of water on the way. She made grants for providing village settlements for brahmanas called agraharas. An inscription of 1701 records a grant of land for a feeding institute. She paid attention to irrigation, as is indicated by her inscriptions on the bank of the Uyyakondan channel in 1687 and 1704. She is said to have met with a tragic death in 1706 A.D.
Vijayaraghava Nayaka of Tanjavur
The last ruler of the great Nayaka rulers of Tanjavur, Vijayaraghava Nayaka was the son of Raghunatha Nayaka. He was also known as Mannarudasa and Achyuta Vijayaraghava Nayaka as he succeeded his father to the throne in c. 1634 A.D. and ruled over the Tanjavur area for a long time till 1673 A.D.
Trapped between several conflicts, Vijayaraghava`s reign was not a peaceful one as he was caught between the Nayakas of Madurai on one side and the Muslim armies on another. Unlike the Nayakas of Madurai who were disloyal to their overlords the last emperors of Vijayanagara, the Nayaks of Tanjavur, up to the time of Vijayaraghava rendered help to their masters and assisted them in all their battles against the Muslim forces.
Vijayaraghava is very well-known with regard to his contributions to religion and culture, especially the fine arts of music and dance, for which Tanjavur had become very famous due to the contributions of his predecessors like Raghunatha, Achyutappa and Sevappa. He too was a great patron of learning and was a scholar in Sanskrit and Telugu and composed the Vijayaragbavabhyudayam and other works.
Vijayaraghava sheltered a large number of poets, musicians and scholars who flocked to his court. He honoured these intellectuals for their imperishable talents. Some of the more important poets were Kamarazu Venkatapati Somayaji, the author of Vijaya-raghava Chandrika and Koneti Dikshita, author of Vijayaraghava Kalyanam. Among the poetesses, Rangajamma was the most famous. The famous music composer Kshetragna, who composed numerous compositions known as padams sung by many musicians of the present day, frequented the court of this king.
Achyutappa Nayaka of Tanjavur
A jewel stone in the crown of the Tanjavur Nayaka lineage was Achyutappa Nayaka of the 16th century A.D. He was one of the most well known rulers in South India. He ruled along with his father Sevappa Nayaka, for a period of about twenty years from 1560 A.D., and after his death ascended the throne at Tanjavur in 1580 A.D. Achyutappa Nayaka was an devout person, a Vaishnava by faith, and devoted to Lord Ranganatha (Vishnu) of the temple at Srirangam (Tiruchirapalli district), Tamil Nadu.
Literary works, the Nayaka age such as the Sanjjita Sudha and the Kaghunatha-bhyudayam divulge that, Achyutappa was also a patron of music and dance. Achyutappa Nayaka was fond of the Kuchipudi style of dance of the Andhra region and invited many Telugu exponents of this style of dance and also the Bhagavata Mela style from their native villages in Andhra to live in Melattur in Tanjavur district. They were provided with houses and land and this area came to be called Achyutapuram or Achyutarayapuram after the name of this patron.
Achyutappa Nayaka`s other contributions to the cultural scene included building and renovating many temples and honouring poets and scholars by giving them gifts of land and money, which added to the enriching glory of the Tanjavur area. This liberal king extended his patronage to Saivas, Vaishnavas and Madhvas as seen from the inscriptions and the literary sources of that time. He abdicated the throne in 1680 and made his son Raghunatha the ruler of Tanjavur. Achyutappa was supported by his very loyal and brilliant minister Govinda Dikshita, a great scholar, who also went on to be the minister of Achyutappa`s son Raghunatha, one of the most famous kings of the Nayakas who ruled with Achyutappa as heir apparent (yuva-raja) for some time before ascending the throne in Tanjavur.
Sevappa Nayaka of Tanjavur
The Vijayanagara Empire which covered most of South India has witnessed the most prosperous times in the 16th century. Following the death of their greatest emperor Krishnadeva Raya, Achyuta Raya succeeded the throne. He appointed a number of viceroys to govern various parts of his far-flung empire and one of these was Sevappa Nayaka who was given the Tanjavur area in the Tamil region to rule over. Sevappa was related to Achyuta Raya (his wife was the sister of Achyuta Raya`s queen) and so the emperor was fond of him for his loyalty and dedication.
Sevappa a peacemaker and gem of a person did not indulge in war activites.His reign in the Tanjavur kingdom was known to be one of comparative peace and prosperity. He helped the Vijayanagar emperor with his army and financial resources whenever needed during wars with the Bahmani kingdom.Sevappa`s contributions to the cultural and religious spheres is remembered even today. He brought about a cultural efflorescence of Tanjavur in the subsequent ages. Numerous temples were constructed and many gifts of gold, jewels and land were donated to the deities on various occasions. Many tanks such as the Sivaganga tank in Tanjavur were repaired and renovated by him, which were of great help to the agriculturists of the area. One of the gopuras (temple towers) of the Arunachaleshwara (Siva) temple at Tiruvannamalai, Tamil Nadu, was constructed during his reign.
Sevappa`s spirit of religious tolerance is well known. Although a Vaishnava by faith, he donated liberally to Saiva shrines and his gift to a Madhva teacher as well as to other religious faiths such as Buddhism and Islam are also recorded. Sevappa was succeeded by his son Achyuttapa Nayaka after his death in 1680 A.D.
References & Sources
Gazetteer of India, Chitradurga District, 1967.
Gazetteer of Mysore By B. L. Rice
Patil, C. S. (1999) Karnataka Kotegalu [Forts of Karnataka]. Hampi: Kannada University.
Puttanna, M. S. (1924) Chitradurgada Paleyagararu [Chitradurga Poligars]. Bangalore.
Ramachandra Rao, P. B. (1943) The Poligars of Mysore and Their Civilization. Teppakulam: Palaniappa Bros.
Sindhura Lakshmana (1898 – 1922) Lakshmana was an revolutionary Indian freedom fighter who engaged in fare freedom movement against British Colonial Government in India. Lakshmana was born in Sindhura village, which is now in Jatta taluk of Sangli district in Indian state of Maharashtra.
Lakshmana started his own struggle against British by forming a band of five like minded brave men and started looting the tax money collected by the government treasury and distributing it among the poor peoples. In 1922, he was shot dead by his own people. Taggi Nayaka helped to British to capure him . Sindhura Lakshmana is regarded as a hero and freedom fighter in the states of Karnataka and Maharashtra and gained reputation
Bedas of Halagali
One of the fighting tribes which fought the British tooth and nail from 1820’s to 1942 and formed the backbone of many uprisings in the Deccan (comprising Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra) were Bedas who descended from hunters. They have been called Ramoshis, Berad, or Bedas, Boya, Dorabiddu and Valmiki in different areas.
Bearing arms to protect themselves and the community and their king was part of their life and they did it with great pride. The prince of Mudhol had accepted British overlordship and the Bedas in the area were seething with dissatisfaction. The East India Company announced on 11 September, 1857 that all Indians should disarm, submit their arms to the company and then get licences to carry arms. This was simply out of question for Bedas. Hence when the Company Sarkar’s edict was sought to be implemented by the King of Mudhol principality, the Bedas of Halagali and surrounding area considered it a great insult and defied him. They did not allow any official to enter their villages. They did not even allow an arms’ census to be taken and did not accept the offer that they will not be actually disarmed but will all be given licences to bear arms. They said, “Bearing arms is our birth right and why should we take anybody’s permission for the same?”
The revolt, which started in a small village called Halagali, kept snowballing and started spreading to surrounding areas. The British Raj saw it as a serious threat to its rule and when the local ruler was not able to suppress it, Major Malcolm summoned the southern Maratha regiment let by Lt. Col Seton Karr. The bedas, though vastly outnumbered, fought fiercely for their rights. The British followed a scorched earth policy in the region and after the final battle captured 290 Bedas and hanged 19 leaders of the uprising in Mudhol market in December 1857.
Umaji naik(Sep 7, 1791 – Feb 3, 1832)
His anti-British manifesto asked the country-men to fight against the foreign rulers. To capture him, the British Government announced a bounty of Rupees 10,000.It has been said that his sister was responsible for arrest of this great freedom fighter.
His Sister invited him for Dinner on holy occasion as per planned and British force came to arrested him. Though he fought against them, the forces sent were able to arrest him. After his capture, he was hanged